The areas of expansion of the Etruscan
civilization. The names of the principal settlements are underlined.
The Etruscan civilization
dominated the whole area of central Italy before the advent
of the Roman. The origin of this people is still today mysterious
, having come up to us only illegible fragments of their writing-system.
However we have testimonies of their big commercial, industrial,
agricultural and engineering ability. Etruscan farmers,
merchants, miners and engineers built for the first time in
history the sewerage and reclaimed the swampy lowland that
subsequently became the center of Rome. They were also able
to foresee the future interpreting the direction of the lightning
or observing the interiors of previously sacrificed animals
but, as the Greek farmers of the south Italy, they ignored
for too much time the ascent of the power of Rome that, after
130 years of continuous attacks to their city-state,
called 'Lucumonie', put the word end to their civilization.
The last Etruscan city to capitulate was Velzna (now called
Orvieto) in the 265 AC
Ca 900-750 AC - Villanovan
cultures in Italy. From their hamlets Etruscan cities grow.
750-600 AC - Greek colonies exert strong influence
over newly urbanized Etruscans.
616 AC - Tarquinius Priscus becomes first Etruscan
to rule Rome.
550 AC - Founding of cities in Po Valley and expansion
535 AC - Control of Corsica heralds greatest extent
of Etruscan influence.
509 AC - Fall of Tarquin dynasty in Rome marks
the beginning of Etruscan decline.
396 AC - Sacking of Veio, after ten-year siege,
end's city's long conflict with Rome.
265 AC - Capitulation of Velzna, last Etruscan
city to be subdued to Rome.
90 AC - After centuries of decline, Etruscans
become Roman citizens.
- Etruscan Art (World of Art)
- Etruscan Art (Yale University Press Pelican History of Art)