The walled town di Marciano della Chiana, towered by the Rocca, ca
ne reached following the A1 Motorway until the exit 'Monte San Savino'.
Then turn right and follow the indications, Marciano is only 4 kms.
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of Etruscan origin, founded between the 4th and 2rd century b.C. on
the western hills of the Chiana valley, Marciano developed during the
Roman age thanks to its graceful position along an important branch
of the Cassia Adrianea road that served all the Chiana
Valley. However, only from the 11th century  we can find
the name of Marciano written in documents: described as 'curtis' [fortified
settlement] property of the monk of Arezzo Cathedral 
and then fief, until 1384, of the powerful Tarlati family.
In that year Marciano - together with Arezzo and its countryside-
were acquired by the Florentine Republic. During the 15th century
Marciano became an important stronghold con the borderline between
the territories of Florence and Siena, so the fortified enclosure was
strengthened and a new, mighty Rocca built on the north-east corner
of the town walls. In the year 1439 the castle was occupied by Bernardino
della Carda, captain of fortune, and in 1554, on the nearby Scannagallo
hill, took place a famous battle between the Spanish-Medicean (Florentine)
and the French-Sienese armies, gone down in history as the 'Battaglia
di Marciano' (Battle of MArciano), decisive for the definitive
defeat of the Sienese Republic.
fortified complex Castle/Walled Town, commenced by the Aretine, transformed
by the Sienese and carried on by the Florentine in the 15th century,is
today still easily to identify. The walled curtain, endowed
with a Main Gate is dominated by the massive structure of
the Rocca. A severe geometrical system is symbol of the exclusive
military role of the settlement.
Today great part of the town walls are lostor incorporated in
followed-up civil works, but some elements can still catch your attention:
two rounded towers in bricks positioned in the north-west and south-west
corners, at the centre of the front toward Lucignano [West] we
can the still admire the magnificent Main Gate, decorated by
three coat-of-arms surmounted by a fourth and greater one of the Medici
family. A slightly machicolation is the base of the clock tower. On
the opposite front is opened the 'Porticciolo', a postern, secondary
way out. The castle was served also by some underground galleries.
The Rocca is still today in a good state. A big squared building with
high - more than 4 meters - scarped walls with machicolations
surrounds the keep tower, built in the middle of the northern city
walls curtain; on the opposite side (inside the town) a tight barbican,
protected by a second smaller tower, overwhelm the 'Porticciolo' postern.
The only access to the Rocca is through a second postern just below
the keep. A second gate - now walled up - was opened in the external
curtain. The fortification is built in limestone and bricks. The main
tower or keep was headquarter of the garrison: it was divided in floors
by wooden floors connected only by inside retractile staircases for
the extreme defence. The complex in [Jan 2005] under restoration.